Chemical Engineering

chemical banner 4Chemical engineering, abbreviated as CHE, is an engineering discipline that involves physical and chemical properties to create new and improve on existing materials and chemicals.  Some of the areas chemical engineering can be applied are biotechnology, electrical, environmental, food, petroleum, and pharmaceutical.



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Chemical Nomenclature & Symbols


Chemical Terms


  • Absolute pressure  -  A pressure at absolute zero can only exist in a total vacuum and any pressure above this is called absolute pressure.
  • Absolute temperature  -  Measured from the starting point of 0, where zero is the coldest theoretically attainable temperature in nature.
  • Absolute zero  -  Absolute zero is the temperature at which all motion within molecules completely stops.
  • Alkali metal element  -  They are highly reactive and usually found with other elements in nature, rarely by themselves.
  • Anion  -  Ions with a negative charge.
  • Antiferromagnetic element -  A family of elements in the periodic table.  A type of magnetism that exist at lower temperatures and disappears at and above a certain temperature.
  • Amino acid  -  A compound of amino and carboxyl groups.
  • Atmosphere  -  The gasses around an object in space (planets and stars).
  • Avogadro's gas law  -  When temperature and pressure are held constant, the volume of a gas is proportional to the number of moles of gas present.


  • Base  -  A substance which gives of hydroxide ions in solution.
  • Boiling point  -  The temperature at which the atmospheric pressure and the vapor pressure of the liquid become equal.
  • Boyle's law  -  The volume occupied by a given mass of gas varies inversely with the absolute pressure if the temperature remains constant.


  • Carbon dioxide  -  CO2
  • Carbon monoxide  -  CO
  • Catalyst  -  A substance that speeds up a chemical process without actually changing the products of reaction.
  • Cathode  -  The electrons flow toward the cathode reducing the corrosion or oxidation of the material.
  • Charle's law  -  At a constant pressure the volume of a given mass of gas is directly porportional, increases or decreases, to the absolute temperature.
  • Chemical energy  -  When two substances are combined or mixed together (atoms and molecules interacting) to produce a chemical reaction.
  • Chemical formula  -  Expression that states the number and type of atoms in a molecule.
  • Chemical property  -  Characteristic that may be observed when matter undergoes a chemical change.
  • Chemical symbol  -  One or two letters that represnets a chemical element.
  • Closed system  -  A thermodynamics system is a specific quanity of matter with a defined boundary and everything outside the boundary is the surroundings.
  • Combined gas law  -  The relationship between pressure volume and temperature for a system with a constant amount of gas.
  • Combustion  -  A reaction called rapid oxidation or burning produced with the right combination of a fuel, oxygen, and heat.
  • Conductor  -  A material through which heat passes.
  • Corrosion  -  A process through which metal deterioates and returns to its natural oxidation state by a chemical reaction.
  • Coulomb's law  -  The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two electric charges.
  • Current  -  The rate of flow of electricity in a circuit, measured in amperes.


  • Dalton’s law  -  The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gas components of the mixture.
  • Density  -  The ratio of the amount of matter in an object compared to its volume.
  • Diamagnetic element -  A family of elements in the periodic table.  A type of magnetism with a very weak magnetic field that will repelled when in the presence of another magnetic field.
  • Diffusion  -  The spread of gases, liquids, or solids from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
  • Distillation  -  The physical process where the separation of various components of a mixture of liquids based on their different boiling points.


  • Electrolyte  -  A chemical substance or mixture, liquid or solid, normally liquid, which conducts electric current.
  • Electron  -  A particle of an atom that orbits the atom's nucleus and has a negative charge.
  • Element  -  Substance that consisting of only one type of atom.
  • Energy  -  Is never created or destroyed.
  • Enthalpy  -  Measures the sum of internal energy changes in heat under constant pressure of the system.
  • Entropy  -  Measures the unavailable energy in a heat system.


  • Ferromagnetic element -  A family of elements in the periodic table.  A type of magnetism that forms a strong magnetic field and remains magnetized after the presence of another magnetic field has been removed.
  • Ferrous metal element -  Since they contain small amounts of metals or added elements they are magnetic and corrode, something non-ferrous metals do not.
  • Force  -  The push or pull of an object resulting in a change from rest or motion.
  • Free electron  -  Electron wrich is not attached to a nucleus.
  • Freezing  -  A physical change of a substance from a liquid phase to a solid phase.
  • Frequency  -  Number of events in a given time.


  • Gas  -  It is able to be compressed to fit a confined space and expanded when released.
  • Gay-Lussac's Law  -  When temperature increases, pressure increases, when pressure decreases, temperature decreases.


  • Heat  -  A form of energy that causes physical change in what is being heated.
  • Heat transfer  -  The exertion of power that is created by heat, or the increase in temperature. 
  • Henry's law  -  At a constant temperature, the volume of a gas which will dissolve into a solution is directly porportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solution in equilibrium with the liquid.


  • Ideal gas law  -  Can be used to predict pressure, temperature & volume changes in ideal gasses.
  • Isolated system  -  A thermodynamics system is a specific quanity of matter with a defined boundary and everything outside the boundary is the surroundings.




  • Lanthanide  -  A silvery white, malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife.
  • Liquid -  Has a specific volume and can hold any shape it is contained within.


  • Matter  -  If it has a mass and takes up space, it is matter.
  • Melting  -  A transitional phase from solid to liquid.
  • Melting point  -  A change in temperature at which a solid changes to liquid.
  • Metalloid element  -  Elements that fall between metals and non-metals having some of the properties of metals but not all.
  • Metal element  -  The physical properties of metals have characteristic such as shiny, hard, high density, malleable, high melting point and can conduct electricity and heat well.
  • Mixture  -  A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined.
  • Mole  -  The measurement of a mass of a substance in grams in the international system of units (SI).


  • Neutron  -  A particle in the nucleus of an atom that has no electric charge.
  • Noble gas -  They are all oderless, colorless, monatomic gasses with very low chemical reactivity.
  • Monatomic element  - Consist of single atoms.
  • Non-ferrous metal element  -  Do not contain iron.  Due to the lack of iron they are not magnetic and are usually more resistant to corrosion than ferrous metals.  This makes these metals more durable than iron, easier to be processed and able to be formed.
  • Nonmetal element  -  Usually have a relative low melting point, boiling point, and density.
  • Nucleus  -  The center core of an atom containing the protons and neutrons.
  • Neutron  -  A non-charged nuclear particle with the same mass as the proton.


  • Open system  -  A thermodynamics system is a specific quanity of matter with a defined boundary and everything outside the boundary is the surroundings.
  • Oxidation  -  The loss of electrons in a chemical reaction in which an element combines with oxygen.  Oxidation and reduction always occur at the same time in equal amounts.


  • Paramagnetic element -  A family of elements in the periodic table.  A type of magnetism with a very weak magnetic field that will only happen when in the presence of another magnetic field.
  • Periodic table  -  A table of the chemical elements arranged by atomic number.
  • Polyatomic nonmetal element -  They are all solid, mostly semi-lustrous semiconductors with electronegativity values that are intermediate to moderately high.
  • Pressure  -  It is the force exerted perpendicular to the surface of an object and is expressed as force per unit area.
  • Protein  -  A compound consisting of 50 or more amino acids.
  • Proton  -  A particle within the nucleus of an atom that holds a positive charge.



  • Radioactive Element  -  There are stable and unstable atoms.  Stable atoms remain the same forever.  Radioactivity comes from unstable atoms having too much energy, breaking down and decaying.  During this process new atoms are created.
  • Rate of reaction  -  The amount of product made in a certain time.
  • Ratio  -  The comparison between two quantities or dividing one number by another.


  • Single bond  -  When an electron pair is shared by two atoms.
  • Solid  -  Has particles that are compressed together in an orderly pattern.
  • Solvent  -  A liquid in which something is disolved.
  • Specific heat  -  The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a material 1 degree.
  • Steam  -  The invisible vapor (gas) when water is heated to its boiling point and passes from a liquid to a gaseous state. 


  • Temperature  -  Normally described as the amount of heat or cold, but it is neither heat or cold.
  • Triple point  -  A place where temperature and pressure of three phases are the same.



  • Vapor  -  The gas state of a liquid or solid.
  • Vapor pressure  -  The pressure at a certain temperature when the liquid and vapor are in equilibrium.
  • Velocity  -  The rate of change or displacement with time.
  • Viscosity  -  The measure of the internal friction/resistance to the flow of a liquid.
  • Volume  -  The space occupied by a mass.


  • Water  -  Can exist in three of the four phases of matter: gas, liquid, or solid.
  • Wavelength  -  The distance between the crests of a wave.
  • Work  -  The overcoming of resistance through space.





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Acid Gasses
Atomic Number Density
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Chemical Energy
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Crude Oil Dehydration Facility
Lime Softening
Mineral Salts
Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere
Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere
Oxygen Index
Sour Crude